Frog-Themed Activities in Honor of World Frog Day!

Spring is finally here — and so is World Frog Day! The weather is gradually warming up and plants are bursting through the soil, preparing to dazzle us with their blooms. Spring also brings the beautiful sounds of frogs and toads calling to each other. In honor of World Frog Day, we are sharing frog-themed activities that can be done at home with minimal supplies.

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Frogs live on six of the Earth’s seven continents, all of them except Antarctica. They are all different colors and sizes. The largest species of frog, the goliath frog, measures 8” to 12” in length. That is about the size of a piece of copy paper!  The smallest known frog, one of the microhylid frogs, measures less than half an inch, about the width of a regular size paperclip. If you have children at home, pull out a paper clip and a piece of copy paper. Have them compare the items to objects around the house to see what is larger than the world’s largest frog and what is smaller than the world’s smallest frog. Comparing sizes of different things helps people build number sense, or an intuitive understanding of numbers, an important skill for all of us to master, especially young children.

Green Mantella - Adam Dewey

Michigan is home to 13 species of frogs and toads. It is usually easier to hear them calling or singing to each other, than it is to actually see them. That is because they are well camouflaged, meaning they blend in with their surroundings. It is important to know which species of frogs and toads live in certain areas. They are considered bioindicators, which means they are species of animals who are greatly impacted by the health of the environment. If the water, wetlands and other places they live are polluted or contaminated, they cannot survive. If their habitat is clean and healthy, many species or individuals will be living there, all calling out to each other in a beautiful chorus.

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The Detroit Zoological Society (DZS) leads a FrogWatch Chapter (aza.org/frogwatch and detroitzoo.org/animals/frogwatch/) to train people, like you, to recognize and record frog calls around Michigan. The data that people submit helps DZS staff and researchers to analyze and better understand frog populations throughout our area and across the country.

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This spring, consider spending time outside in the evening to listen for frogs and toads. You can practice being a frog and toad researcher, or a citizen scientist, by learning the calls and recording information like date, temperature, weather conditions, the time you start and stop listening, and the species you hear. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources has short recordings of each species on their website to help you learn them. Practicing recording data is an important skill, especially for kids. Send your data to Rebecca Johnson (rjohnson@dzs.org) or Mike Reed (mreed@dzs.org). Next year, you can join us for training to become a certified FrogWatch participant. The earliest calling frogs will be starting soon, the wood frogs and spring peepers, so pick a night where the temperature is above 40 degrees Fahrenheit and head outside to listen!

 

A Trip to a Cultural Institution Provides More Than Just Fun

A trip to a zoo, nature center or other cultural institution is often planned as a recreational or primarily social event. The reality is these visits are critical learning experiences for youth and adults alike. School-age children spend considerably more time out of school than they do at school. Between evenings, weekends and breaks, in the United States, school accounts for about 6.7 hours a day for 180 days, or roughly 25% of a child’s time spent awake each year. The opportunities youth have in their out-of-school time can make a significant difference in their future school, career and life trajectories.

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Cultural institutions are favorite places to visit for a variety of reasons: many people feel safe visiting their local and regional institutions, and they find the exhibits and experiences relevant and meaningful. The institutions are rich in learning opportunities and removed from that typical school-day feeling. They are fun, engaging and memorable. Many institutions are free to visit or offer memberships that make frequent visits affordable.

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The Detroit Zoo and Belle Isle Nature Center are top informal learning institutions in the community, combining opportunities to observe animals in naturalistic habitats with stories of individual animals. Many animals are part of critical, global conservation initiatives; others have been rescued from unfortunate circumstances and have inspiring stories about second chances and new beginnings. These stories are shared through signage, in-person by staff and volunteers, and by digital media available to guests. In addition, guests often have the opportunity to participate in hands-on activities that focus on science concepts while engaging with experts in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) careers during their visit. Perhaps most importantly, visitors build their understanding of animals’ adaptations, physical appearances, behaviors and individual personalities through their observations. This information creates an awareness about the natural world and how human and non-human animals share the same spaces and interact.

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Young children, from birth to kindergarten age, are creating their understanding of the world, they’re building their vocabulary and figuring out how things work with an insatiable, natural curiosity. Exposure to places like the Detroit Zoo and Belle Isle Nature Center are critical to developing their future skills and interests. The Belle Isle Nature Center has indoor and outdoor play areas designed specifically for young children. Both areas have natural items like tree cross sections, natural building blocks, rocks and seasonal items like acorns and pinecones for visitors to discover. Adults are essential mentors as they encourage youth to manipulate objects, provide correct vocabulary to identify items, and prompt early learners with questions so they can investigate together. These actions explore cause and effect, help draw parallels between what children know and are learning, and aid in the development of scientific thinking skills.

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As a whole, these experiences build visitors’ understanding of the natural world and systems within it. During a visit, guests have opportunities to explore their impact, both direct and indirect, on those systems and how they can make informed decisions that ultimately benefit themselves, wildlife and wild places. Guests who regularly visit informal learning institutions with children are predisposing them to be interested in STEM-related fields and equipping them with the essential skills needed to pursue those careers, such as critical thinking, problem solving, and planning and conducting investigations. So the next time you think: “we should do something fun today, like visit the Detroit Zoo,” know that you’re not only going to enjoy your visit, but, if you bring children, you just may be helping to shape their future.

– Claire Lannoye-Hall is a curator of education for the Detroit Zoological Society.

Getting a Closer Look Inside Animals: Computed Tomography Comes to the Detroit Zoological Society

As zoo veterinarians, we recognize the importance of identifying animals with health problems as early as possible. Fortunately, the Detroit Zoological Society has exceptional zookeepers who attentively look after each animal in their care and alert the veterinary team whenever they suspect there may be a problem. While subtle changes in demeanor, appetite, fecal and urinary output, and activity level can be key indicators of illness in an animal, most of our patients are very good at hiding their symptoms. In order to get a more comprehensive understanding of an animal’s health, we often rely on diagnostic tests, such as physical examination, bloodwork and cultures for bacteria.

When the Ruth Roby Glancy Animal Health Complex opened in 2004, the radiology suite was equipped with a state-of-the-art radiology unit designed for use in human hospitals.  With this upgrade, we found that we increasingly relied on diagnostic imaging (radiographs and ultrasound) to make diagnoses and shape our treatment plans.  In fact, we take x-rays during almost every diagnostic examination, on patients as small as dart frogs and as large as bison.

Since the early 2000s, imaging technology has been rapidly advancing, and by upgrading equipment and adding new technologies, the Detroit Zoological Society has stayed on the cutting edge of veterinary care.  This includes having ultrasound probes designed for patients of all shapes and sizes, digital dental radiography and portable x-ray equipment that can go out into the Zoo to image animals who are difficult to move to the hospital. Despite these advancements, we still found it necessary to take patients to off-site facilities at least a few times each year for computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

In late 2019, two very exciting things happened: first, a generous donor named Thomas A. Mackey came forward with an interest in funding a project that would have an immediate impact on animal care and welfare, and, secondly, we became aware of a revolutionary new computed tomography (CT) technology that had been developed in Ann Arbor.  One of the most important features of the new CT technology is that it is portable, and much more affordable and user-friendly than a full-sized CT system. Since our hospital was already equipped with the features and space necessary to install the new system, within just a few months, we were able to bring this exciting new technology to the Zoo.

The new Xoran Portable CT has been in use for only a few months, but it has already had a tremendous impact on patient care at the Detroit Zoo.  Adding CT to our diagnostic toolbox has increased the level of care that we can provide to animals at DZS exponentially. CT works by aiming a narrow beam of x-rays at a patient, while quickly rotating around them. The CT’s computer generates cross-sectional images, or “slices” of the body.  The images contain more detailed information than conventional x-rays.  Once the slices are generated, they can be digitally “stacked” together to form a 3-D image that allows for easier identification and location of basic structures as well as possible tumors or abnormalities.

Here are just a few examples of how this technology is helping us give animals the best possible care:

CASE #1
CT imaging is especially well suited for visualizing the teeth and bones of the jaw. A male aardvark was due for a routine checkup. He had been eating fine, and there was no reason to suspect that he had dental disease. However, aardvarks often have problems with their teeth, so we decided to use the CT machine to scan his head. The images collected showed that he had areas of bone breakdown around the roots of three separate teeth. Treatment was able to be provided before his condition progressed to a point where he was showing signs of discomfort.

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CASE #2
This adult McCord’s box turtle was imaged during a routine examination. The shell covering the body can make radiographs hard to interpret, but CT imaging allows us to see inside of the turtle.

McCord’s box turtle: a. Image of the head and forearms, b. image from the side showing the head and neck folded into the shell, c. 3D reconstruction of the face and front limbs seen in image a.

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CASE #3
CT imaging has also proved helpful for several avian patients. One of the cinereous vultures living at the Zoo had a mass (red star) growing on the toe pictured below. The mass needed to be removed, but in order to plan for surgery, we needed to understand if the mass was superficial or more invasive and involved the soft tissues and bone beneath. CT imaging provided better detail for seeing small changes in the muscles and ligaments surrounding the mass. After evaluating the images, we were able to plan a surgical approach to remove the mass, and any adjacent tissue of concern. The vulture is doing great post-operatively and already back in his home!

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CASE #4
We currently have four red pandas living at the Detroit Zoo. The oldest is a 14-year-old female named Ta-Shi. During her recent routine examination, we noticed that one of her large molar teeth appeared darker than normal and was cracked on the surface. Within a few moments, we were set up and ready to collect CT images of her head and teeth. The images showed that the tooth was infected at the root, a problem that was likely causing discomfort. The tooth was also broken, meaning it needed to be removed in several pieces. After the tooth was extracted, a repeat CT showed us conclusively that all of the roots had been completely removed.

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We are extraordinarily grateful to have state-of-the-art equipment at hand to care for animals at the Detroit Zoo. The recent financial gift that made the addition of CT possible has improved our ability to see small changes more clearly, detect problems earlier and fine-tune treatments. With this tool, we will continue to ensure that animals live long, healthy lives and thrive within our care. We cannot say thank you enough to Thomas A. Mackey for his incredibly generous donation!

– Dr. Ann Duncan is the director of animal health for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Ruth Roby Glancy Animal Health Complex.

 

 

Share Your Love of Sustainability with Your Sweetheart

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Whether you like chocolate or candy, Valentine’s Day is a great excuse to share many delicious treats with your loved ones. There’s just one problem: not all of these treats are created equal when it comes to sustainability. Many food products, including a large amount of candy, contains an ingredient that has major effects on wildlife: palm oil.

Palm oil is a vegetable oil derived from the fruit of oil palm. It is used in a wide variety of products, especially in food and cleaning supplies. One positive aspect of palm oil is that less land is required to create the same yield as other vegetable oils. However, the demand for this product has become so high that land is being deforested at a very rapid rate to create space for these plantations. This deforestation is a direct contributor to habitat loss for many species, and it is estimated that the palm oil industry impacts 193 species with concerning conservation statuses. Among those impacted are species like orangutans, rhinos and tigers. Specifically, scientists believe that the 17% decline observed in the Sumatran subspecies of tiger over the past 20 years is heavily due to deforestation for palm oil plantations.

So, what qualifies as sustainable palm oil? The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a group formed to maintain standards and certify organizations producing and sourcing sustainable palm oil. There are several RSPO-certified producers that have committed to stopping certain industry actions to create better practices for both wildlife and people. These new standards call for transparency, the elimination of deforestation and better working conditions for laborers. By making these commitments, producers and organizations can work together to create a demand for sustainably sourced palm oil in our everyday products.

Consider the following actions to decrease the demand for unsustainable palm oil:

Support sustainable companies. Buy food, such as your Valentine’s Day candy, and other products from companies that source their palm oil from sustainable farms.

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Make your voice heard. Did you notice a certain company was not committed to using sustainable palm oil? Write them a letter to share your concerns and encourage more environmentally conscious operations. Our consumer voice can be quite impactful.

Create homemade gifts. Make a batch of cookies or chocolate-covered strawberries to gift instead of purchasing something from the store. Not only are you showing someone you care, but you can ensure that each ingredient used is a sustainable one.

Marissa Ratzenberger is a sustainability coordinator for the Detroit Zoological Society

 

Reusing is Always in Style

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With changing seasons and styles, you may be digging through dressers only to find clothing that has not been worn in months. If you decide to create more space in your closet, what happens to your unwanted clothing? Even though items may seem outdated or worn, they have a much longer life than one might think. In most cases, clothing items can be reused in multiple capacities, so hold off on sending them out with the trash.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), roughly 8.9 million tons of clothing and footwear are sent to landfills with clothing being one of the world’s fastest growing waste streams. Not only can clothing become a material waste issue, but the production of textiles is a heavy contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, equating to roughly 1.2 billion tons of carbon per year. The average car could drive for over 260 million years to match the annual carbon footprint of the fashion industry.

Global textile production is also one of the largest consumers of water, both in the growth and processing of clothing materials. According to media reports, it takes roughly 2,000 gallons of water to create only one pair of jeans. This figure is over six times the amount of water that the average family uses per day. Water is also needed to dye clothing, which can often be discarded into waterways, polluting habitats.

For ideas on how to reduce textile waste, please consider the following actions:

  • Rethink fashion. Fast fashion is the production of clothing in high quantities with low quality materials to meet the latest trend. When purchasing new clothing, choose timeless pieces that will have a longer lifespan.
  • Recycle apparel. Donate unwanted clothing to a local charity. Not only is donating our clothing an action that reduces our impact on landfills, but it also provides resources to communities in need.
  • Reuse clothing. Consider purchasing some or all of your clothes from secondhand stores. Not only will you support the clothing reuse cycle, but your fashion will always be unique and you save money.
  • Repurpose items. If you do not want to part with your old t-shirt, consider repurposing it for a different use. Old textiles are great for use as household cleaning rags. Clothing can also be disassembled and turned into other items like headbands, napkins and scarves. Search some DIY projects and get creative!

    If you are interested in donating your clothing, there are several organizations that have local drop-off sites, including Goodwill and The Salvation Army. There are also organizations — like Simple Recycling and the Military Order of the Purple Heart — that pick up donations from your home. Research your local donation organizations and help decrease your clothing waste impact.  

Marissa Ratzenberger is a sustainability coordinator for the Detroit Zoological Society

Answer the Call – Gorillas are on the Line

Did you know just one simple action could help save a species?

Lessen the impact on prime gorilla habitats by recycling your old cell phone. Yes, the cell phone that is currently in your junk drawer collecting dust. It’s an easy way to make a big difference!

For a second year, the Detroit Zoological Society (DZS) is partnering with other accredited zoos within the Association of Zoos & Aquariums to launch a cell phone recycling program from February 1 through April 30. In addition to mobile phones, we also accept iPads, iPods, cameras, and chargers.

A rare and valuable mineral, coltan, is used in the creation of all cell phones and small electronics, and the mining of it is directly impacting the survival of gorillas.

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Eighty percent of the world’s supply of coltan is found in Central Africa, which is prime gorilla habitat. Imagine having the cell phone equivalent of gold in your backyard. There would be a lot of people showing up at your house with shovels in their hands and dollar signs in their eyes. That’s the situation for coltan and the gorillas.

Coltan is luring miners into the forests, which causes trouble for these animals. Their habitat is becoming logged and dug up so the miners can reach the coltan, and people are bringing in diseases, which the gorillas can easily contract. People are also illegally hunting gorillas – either to eat, sell or trade for more supplies. The more cell phones people buy, the more coltan needs to be mined, which leads to more gorillas becoming homeless. With their numbers dwindling in the wild as it is, let’s work together to save them.

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Last year, the collective goal of the program was to gather 10,000 mobile phones and engage 10,000 children and community members to help save gorillas. Together, the participating organizations exceeded this goal, collecting more than 12,000 phones and engaging nearly 260,000 people. The DZS alone collected 490 phones, ranking seventh among the 21 participating zoos and aquariums.

This year, we would like to collect even more phones and reach even more people, and you can help us. Fewer than 20 percent of old cell phones are recycled. Consider bringing your old phones and electronics to the Detroit Zoo during the next three months. Donation bins will be set up at the Main Entrance; you can also deliver them to the guest relations associates manning the ticket booths. We’re also looking for local schools to join us in this venture and make a direct impact on saving the species. If your school or classroom is interested in helping us protect gorillas, you can email Carla Van Kampen, curator of education, at cvankampen@dzs.org and Aaron Jesue, zookeeper, at ajesue@dzs.org. Also, mark your calendar for our World Gorilla Day celebration at the Detroit Zoo, which will be held on Thursday, September 24.

Picture1– Aaron Jesue is a zookeeper for the Detroit Zoological Society.

A Blossoming Friendship: Ta-Shi Teaches Keti Manners

Is there anything sweeter than making a new friend? Keti and 14-year-old Ta-Shi have become quite the dynamic duo in recent weeks.

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Keti, who is the offspring of 4-year-old mother, Ash, and 3-year-old father, Ravi, was hand-reared after birth by Detroit Zoological staff. Ash was a young first-time mother and a bit unsure of how to properly care for her newborn. It’s not unusual for this to occur; zoo babies do occasionally have to be cared for by staff for various reasons.

After four months of close observation in the DZS nursery, Keti was encouraged to play and learn on her own in a grassy habitat adjacent to the Holtzman Wildlife Foundation Red Panda Forest.

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Keti quickly became confident in her abilities — and then it was time for another first: a grand introduction.

Recently, Keti was introduced to Ta-Shi in the grassy habitat. Ta, who has reared cubs multiple times, appeared curious and switched on her maternal instincts during her first meeting with the now 6-month-old. Keti seemed incredibly eager to be around another red panda and quickly took to Ta.

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A good companion and mentor, Ta is teaching Keti her manners — and, in a way, helping her potty train. In the wild, red pandas go to the bathroom in a specific area, similar to how a cat uses a litter box. Ta has now shown Keti where the “bathroom” is located.

The pair appear to be getting along well and last week, they were even caught snuggling.

Keti and Ta will eventually be moved to the Holtzman Wildlife Foundation Red Panda Forest to join neighbors, Ash and Ravi.

Ash and Ravi are approaching breeding season, so Keti will remain separated from them as this is the normal period when red panda babies leave their mothers in the wild.

In other words, Keti will get to spend even more quality time with her new faithful friend.

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-Alexandra Bahou is communications manager for the Detroit Zoological Society