Animal Welfare: How do You Know if They’re ‘Happy’?

Think about the term, “animal welfare”, and what it means to you. When you encounter an animal – in any setting, be it a zoo, a friend’s house or even your own living room – are there certain cues that help you decide if you feel the animal is having a good or a bad time – or experiencing positive or negative welfare? It may be the animal’s appearance, behaviors, what the space looks like where they live, or perhaps it’s based on your knowledge about that species.

In some cases, it’s relatively easy to determine that an animal is in a poor welfare state. If they’re living in dirty and cramped conditions, don’t have access to social partners – or perhaps too many – or if they have obvious signs of injuries or illness without any indication they’re under veterinary care, it’s likely the animal is not experiencing good welfare. But when you look at other, less obvious factors, such as if the animal is quietly resting in a spacious habitat, or if the animal is moving back and forth in one area of their space, the answers are less clear.

The concept of animal welfare refers to an animal’s physical, mental and emotional states over a period of time. It is based on the individual’s experience, which can be different from one species to another, and from one animal to another. It is not about what is provided to an animal, such as food and water – this doesn’t automatically ensure good welfare. Although having access to these resources is critical to creating conditions that may lead to good welfare, it is actually how the animal perceives those conditions that determines their welfare. We can’t simply measure welfare in terms of square footage, gallons of water or the nutritional content of food items. We must use indicators from the animals themselves, such as behavior, physical condition and even emotional responses.

These indicators represent the three different concepts of welfare. The first has to do with an animal’s ability to engage in natural behaviors, or live in a way it has evolved to. The second involves biological functioning and prioritizes an animal’s physical health. The last focuses on the animal’s feelings and emotional states, with an emphasis on minimizing negative emotions and promoting positive ones. Should we favor one concept over another, it is possible we would miss something important to an individual animal.

If two people were to assess an animal using two different concepts, they could come to conflicting conclusions about that animal’s welfare state. This is why we incorporate aspects of all three of these concepts when evaluating animal welfare. This allows us to gain a much more holistic picture of the animal’s experience and to consider all of the factors that impact their well-being.

– Dr. Stephanie Allard is the director of animal welfare for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Center for Zoo and Aquarium Animal Welfare and Ethics.

Detroit Zoological Society Helps Students Explore Alternative Dissection

Millions of frogs are dissected every year in science classrooms across the country and unfortunately, many of these animals are taken from the wild. With more than half of all amphibian species at risk of extinction, it is critical to leave amphibians in their native habitats.

This summer, the Detroit Zoological Society’s Berman Academy for Humane Education purchased state-of-the-art virtual-reality frog dissection software. Combined with 3-D models, students can participate in an engaging, hands-on humane dissection alternative. In its current form, this alternative dissection approach is instilling a better appreciation for amphibians in classrooms, camps and other education programs.

During the DZS’s Summer Safari Camp at the Detroit Zoo this summer, students entering eighth grade focused on veterinary medicine as a potential career. Through this lens, campers used iPads to explore, rotate and connect how a frog’s physiology works beneath the surface. The augmented reality part of the app allows students to zoom in and manipulate the view of the virtual frog on their tables. Hands-on models of the same species of frog allows them to physically take apart and reassemble parts of the frogs’ anatomy. This experience, combined with a guided tour of the National Amphibian Conservation Center, gave campers the opportunity to see frogs in a different light.

Middle school teachers can schedule their class to visit the Zoo to participate in a Learning Lab focused on virtual dissection. In this program, students use the virtual reality software on a classroom set of iPads to learn about frogs and dissect them, without the cost and environmental impact of taking amphibians from the wild. The software also allows students to go through the process multiple times, to better understand frog anatomy while ensuring wild populations of these critically important species are not compromised.

For more information or to schedule a classroom for the Virtual Dissection Learning Lab, visit https://detroitzoo.org/education/school-groups/ or email us at education@dzs.org.

– Carla Van Kampen is a curator of education for the Detroit Zoological Society.

Education: Teachers Line Up for Summer Institute at the Detroit Zoo

The Detroit Zoological Society (DZS) annually hosts a Summer Teacher Institute where groups of dedicated educators spend six days at the Detroit Zoo, revitalizing their teaching methods and building a diverse professional network at the wildest place in town.

The DZS education team will once again be joined this summer by Rebecca Dyasi, a national expert in inquiry-based learning and a master of science concepts and content, to co-facilitate the two-week workshop. Rebecca challenges workshop participants to ask questions, make observations and verbalize their learning experience before helping them connect what they’re doing to state-mandated curriculum. The teachers have an opportunity to be learners, novices, experts and mentors all during the same workshop.

Last year, workshop participants planned and conducted investigations on plants, pollinators, animal behavior, the properties of water and more. Each discovery led to more questions and excitement as participants explored the Zoo’s 125 acres and collected data. Small groups of teachers worked together to analyze their data and share results through short presentations, reinforcing what they learned and experienced.

After the workshop, the network of educators can stay in contact through webinars and in-person gatherings. Having a community of professionals to support each other through the challenges of transitioning from a traditional classroom model to one that is more student-driven greatly increases the success rate. Last year, many of the teachers continued to work with the DZS education team and brought their students to the Zoo for a Learning Lab and Zoo experience in the fall and winter, capitalizing on a time when crowds are lower and animals are often more active.

The 2018 institute will be held July 24-26 and July 31-August 2. Space is limited; for more information or to register, click here.

– Claire Lannoye-Hall is a curator of education for the Detroit Zoological Society.

Congress Draws Global Animal Welfare Leaders to Detroit Zoo

The 4th international animal welfare congress was held May 4-6, 2017, by the Detroit Zoological Society’s Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW), drawing leaders in the field from all over the world. Convening leaders in animal welfare is one of the Center’s primary initiatives and this was the first time we co-hosted with the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, a global organization for leading zoos and aquariums, asked to join in our effort to move forward the welfare of animals living in the care humans. We were thrilled to combine our collective power to make a difference.

The congress brought together 140 of the world’s experts in animal welfare representing accredited zoos and aquariums, regional accrediting associations, academia and animal welfare protection organizations to discuss issues of ethics and the future of zoos and aquariums. We are committed to advancing animal welfare and although progress has been made –  both in the science and policy arenas – we must continue to face existing challenges head-on if we are to succeed. The thought-provoking conversations of this esteemed group will help to pave a path forward for zoos and aquariums around the globe.

Organizations entrusted with the care of individual animals have a unique and profound responsibility to go beyond providing good care to ensure that each individual is experiencing great welfare. Accredited zoos and aquariums are striving to raise standards of animal welfare and to ensure animals in their care are thriving. The future of zoos and aquariums depends on our ability to move forward as welfare centers, both within and beyond our walls, championing a compassionate conservation approach.

As the human footprint continues to expand and animals – both individuals and at the population level – are increasingly threatened, accredited zoos and aquariums can play a critical role in the protection and preservation of the beings with whom we share the world. The very foundation of such endeavors is a global commitment to the welfare of all animals living in the care of humans. We look forward to sharing some of the presentations from the congress on the CZAW website, and to a future in which all animals have the opportunity to thrive.

– Dr. Stephanie Allard is the director of animal welfare for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Center for Zoo Animal Welfare.

Education: Out-of-this-world Technology Brings Scientists and Educators to Detroit Zoo

We are thrilled to welcome scientists and educators from all over the world for the 2017 International Science On a Sphere Users Collaborative Workshop April 25-27 at the Detroit Zoo. It is an honor to be the first-ever zoo selected to host this global workshop, along with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and share how we can engage the community with science by combining important environmental messages with technological advances.

Science On a Sphere (SOS) is a 6-foot spherical display system developed by NOAA that can showcase data simulations as visual media regarding climate, weather and animal movement. While it is used by more than 130 museums, science centers and other organizations to help people understand global connections between land, water and the atmosphere, the Detroit Zoo is one of only three zoos in the country to feature SOS. It is located in the Wildlife Interpretive Gallery and is free with Zoo admission.

The upcoming workshop is titled “Pole to Pole: Connecting People, Places, Animals and Spaces”. Topics will be focused on the various ways SOS can be used to educate audiences of all ages, especially about animals, habitats and the environment. Most of the communication among the SOS community happens online, so having the chance to meet in person once every 18 months is a benefit both personally to those who work on this system, and professionally – giving participants the chance to advance the educational capacity of this technology as a larger group.

If you haven’t spent time with SOS during your Zoo visits, we encourage you to stop and take a look. This amazing piece of technology is regularly updated with different content. If you love technology and want to see the types of data available on a flat screen, using SOS Explorer is a great place to start. This is also a great tool in the classroom, which can complement a field trip to the Zoo either before or after your visit. You can find it at https://sos.noaa.gov/SOS_Explorer/. The content you see on the Detroit Zoo’s SOS is ever-changing, so each time you visit, there’s a good chance you will see and learn something new.

Carla Van Kampen is a curator of education for the Detroit Zoological Society.

Notes from the Field: Wolf-Moose Project on Isle Royale

Isle Royale is a remote wilderness island in northern Michigan, and at more than 40 miles long, it is the largest island in the largest Great Lake: Lake Superior.

I recently spent some time on Isle Royale working on a conservation research project called the Wolves and Moose of Isle Royale, along with Brian Manfre, a mammal department supervisor for the Detroit Zoological Society. Moose first came to Isle Royale in the early 1900s; wolves joined in the 1940s after crossing an “ice bridge” from Canada. For more than 50 years, the wolf-moose research project has studied the predator-prey dynamics of these species, making it the longest continuous study of any predator-prey system in the world. I was very eager to see the island and participate in the work first-hand.

Unfortunately, the wolf population at Isle Royale has dropped to only two closely related individuals, and the project now focuses on how the moose population is responding to reduced wolf predation. There is a proposal to reintroduce more wolves, but this is a complicated issue, in part because Isle Royale is also a National Park. The National Park Service will decide on this proposal in the fall of 2017.

Brian and I were joined by eight others working on this project. In addition to looking for moose bones to study the moose population, our team would also be investigating the presence of wolves at two previously used wolf dens. We set off together on a four-hour ferry ride from Copper Harbor to Isle Royale, and reported to the Bangsund cabin, an old fishing cabin that was built in 1926 and has served as the base for the project since 1959. We loaded our backpacks with hearty camp fare such as oatmeal, cheese, peanut butter and other supplies for the week, and then took a short boat ride to our departure site. After a 2-mile hike, we set up the first camp.

We camped at several different sites on the shores of Lake Superior and several inland lakes, and soon got into a routine of cooking, cleaning and filtering drinkable water at the camps. We were fortunate to have very pleasant weather. There was frost one of the first nights, but later in the week it warmed up enough for black flies to pester us.

On a usual day, we would hike 2-3 miles on-trail and then walk another 3-5 miles off-trail more slowly looking for moose bones. It was difficult at times, as we were going through dense forest, up and down ridges and through swamps. When a moose bone was spotted the requisite, “Bone!” was shouted out, and everyone would converge on the site to look for more bones. We were happy to find any bones at all, but skulls and teeth were especially prized. When cut in a cross section, the rings of dentin in the teeth can be counted to estimate the age of the moose – similar to counting tree rings – which can provide important information on the moose population. We can also examine vertebrae for signs of arthritis: Many of the moose at Isle Royale have been found to live longer and develop more arthritis than moose in areas with more predators. While it was a thrill to find these moose remains and evidence of wolves chewing on the bones, it was even more exciting to visit the old wolf dens. Unfortunately, there was no evidence of recent wolf use but we did find approximately one-week-old wolf feces along a trail nearby.

After a week, we returned to the Bangsund cabin with heavier packs than we left with, as they’d been loaded with moose skulls and other bones. We enjoyed a shower via bucket and ladle and then feasted on lasagna, wild rice casserole and a very welcome salad. We told stories and sang songs – it was a fitting celebration for a meaningful contribution to the project.

If you’re interested in participating in the wolf-moose study, visit this website.

– Paul Buzzard, Ph.D., is the director of conservation for the Detroit Zoological Society.

Animal Welfare: What, How and Why

I have written a number of blog entries on the animal welfare research projects we are conducting through the Detroit Zoological Society’s Center for Zoo Animal Welfare, and how collaborations enable us to move forward with many of the initiatives we undertake. Let’s now go back to the basics and explore what animal welfare is, how we go about evaluating the welfare of individual animals, and why this is fundamentally important.

The Association of Zoos & Aquariums’ Animal Welfare Committee defines animal welfare as an animal’s collective physical, mental and emotional states over a period of time, and is measurable on a continuum from good to poor. Although there are a number of other definitions available, the main factors remain consistent: Welfare is measured at the level of the individual animal, it encompasses all aspects of an animal’s life, and it can change over the course of time. The goal for anyone working with and around animals is to ensure that they each experience good welfare.

Going back many decades, people have long been concerned with the welfare of animals. In the 1960s, the Five Freedoms model was developed, originally as a means to assess the welfare of farm animals. This model states that animals should experience freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury and disease, freedom from fear and distress, and freedom to express normal behavior. Since its initial development, this model has been applied in a variety of settings, including in zoos. However, the Five Freedoms model can be improved upon, as it is focused on minimizing negative states rather than also promoting positive welfare. Additionally, some of what is stated can be counter-productive to an animal’s survival. For example, if an animal never experiences thirst, then it may never drink, and this would not be a good thing. Therefore, the absolute freedom from some of the experiences is not even feasible. Rather, the important factor is ensuring that the resources necessary to perform the associated behaviors are available.

More recently, the Five Domains model was created, which delineates how nutrition, physical health, behavior and the environment (both physical and social) feed into an animal’s emotional state. The outcome is the individual’s welfare status. For example, if an animal is hungry but does not have access to food, this will result in a feeling of hunger, which will be a negative factor in the overall welfare status of that animal. If an animal is able to express natural behaviors, he or she will experience satisfaction, which is a positive emotion and contributes to positive welfare. All physical influences are taken into consideration as well as how they impact the internal, emotional state of the animal, in order to assess overall well-being.

Assessing welfare is a complex process that requires an understanding of the needs of a species and an individual as well as experience with scientific methods. It also typically includes multiple types of measures such as behavioral and physiological indicators. One can begin by evaluating what is made available to an animal, such as the physical space, the type of food presented and the social opportunities provided. This kind of assessment is known as a resource-based assessment, as it focuses on what we provide to the animals. To truly understand how an animal is faring, however, we also need to understand how they respond to their environment, and as such, conduct animal-based assessments. In our case, we usually observe how animals are interacting with their physical environment, with one another if they are a social species, and we utilize various physiological measures such as body condition, overall health and even hormone levels.

In order to ensure animals living in zoos are thriving, we need to understand what matters to them and that requires us to figure out how to “ask” them. Using existing methods and developing new ones to assess welfare is critical if we are to make evidence-based decisions for caring for animals. By letting animals tell us what is working and what needs to be improved, we are making their welfare a priority, and this is the ultimate responsibility we have to each and every animal living in the care of humans.

– Dr. Stephanie Allard is the director of animal welfare for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Center for Zoo Animal Welfare.