Be Green by Eating Clean

There are many simple ways you can turn your lifestyle into a more environmentally friendly one, right down to the food you eat. But eating clean is about more than just buying and consuming fruits and vegetables. It’s about finding the food that is beneficial to both our bodies and the environment.

Take a look at some clean-eating tips:

  • Eat Local. Be the “locavore” that you know you are, by consuming food grown within a few miles of where you live. Locavores make frequent trips to farmers’ markets and purchase fresh produce within a local range. A great place for locavores in Michigan is Detroit’s Eastern Market, which is just 13 miles away from the Detroit Zoo. Other farmers markets are popping up all over the metro Detroit area including in Royal Oak, Birmingham, Clawson, Farmington, Grosse Pointe Park, Northville and Plymouth. Check your local websites for farmers’ markets near you. This simple change can not only lighten your carbon footprint because there are fewer miles for the food to travel and less gas being used to get there, creating less pollution on its way to your table. There’s also a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions during the production, packaging and transportation of your food, and it helps local farmers stay in business. There’s also something special about meeting the people who grow the food you put on your table.
    • Tips from a locavore:
      • BYOB (Bring your own bag). When visiting a farmers’ market or grocery store, bring your own reusable bags to cut down on the amount of plastic being used
      • Recycle any packaging that was on the foods you bought
      • Save gas by taking public transportation, a bike or carpool with family or friends
      • Make a genuine connection with the farmers whose produce you purchase
      • The produce at farmers’ markets are what is in season
      • If you’re buying non-organic, make sure to thoroughly wash your produce

  • Eat less meat: Try choosing veggies over meat; it’s healthier and you can help the planet. Perhaps try eating meat twice a week instead of four times, or even just once a week. Varying studies indicate the animal agriculture industry causes anywhere between nine and 51 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions. This means that by eating less meat, you can lower the amount of greenhouse gas emissions – and you can save water! Did you know that by skipping one burger, you can save enough water to shower with for three weeks? There are also health benefits to eating less meat, such as a lower risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes, among others.

The Detroit Zoological Society is a leader in environmentally sustainability, with all operations guided by our award-winning Greenprint initiative. As part of our Green Journey, we are working to create a healthier environment for all animals, visitors and the planet. Offering options for visitors to eat clean at Zoo concessions is just one of the ways we’re working to create a more sustainable future.

The Detroit Zoo’s Pure Greens Café has a 100 percent vegan menu, offering items such as the “impossible burger”, made from simple ingredients in nature such as wheat protein, coconut oil, potato protein and heme. Visitors can also try our Mexican burrito bowl or vegan tofurky sausage. All of the vegetables come from Michigan farms, solidifying Pure Greens’ “locavore” status. Vegetarian and vegan options are also available at the Artic Café and American Coney Island, including a vegan burger basket, soups and salads.

Animal Welfare: More than the “Bear” Necessities

The Detroit Zoological Society (DZS) recently renovated the grizzly bear habitat at the Detroit Zoo, doubling the amount of outdoor and indoor space available to the three rescued brothers. Staff with the Center for Zoo and Aquarium Animal Welfare and Ethics are measuring changes in the bears’ activity budgets, behavioral diversity and fecal glucocorticoid concentrations to assess the impact of the expanded habitat. We will also be testing the efficacy of a biomarker of oxidative stress as a novel indicator of animal welfare.

The grizzly bears living at the Detroit Zoo, Mike, Thor and Boo, are brothers who were rescued in Alaska after their mother was killed by a poacher and the cubs began foraging too close to humans. At just a year old, they were too young to care for themselves and the DZS has been able to provide them with a safe place to grow up. The bears are now 7 years old and weigh approximately 900 pounds. With their inquisitive nature and significant strength, they frequently “redecorate” their habitat by moving logs around and digging in various locations. It became clear that they were outgrowing the habitat they called home since 2012.

As part of the DZS’s commitment to ensuring individual animals experience great welfare, a significant expansion of the grizzly bears’ habitat is underway. Not only will this augment the amount of land space available to the bears, it will also provide them with new behavioral choices. They will have access to more features such as caves to provide cool, shaded areas. The larger habitat will also increase natural foraging opportunities for the bears.

When we make changes that affect the lives of animals, it is important that we understand how those changes impact them. To that end, we began collecting data last fall, prior to construction, to obtain a baseline of the bears’ behavior and hormone levels. Observations continued during construction and will end two months after the bears move back into their renovated home. Zookeepers have also been filling out daily surveys to add to the information we are gathering. Fecal samples are collected daily and these will be analyzed in our lab to measure hormone levels related to how the bears react to these changes. Using these different types of data in concert will increase our understanding of the expansion effect on the bears’ overall well-being.

Dr. Stephanie Allard is the director of animal welfare for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Center for Zoo and Aquarium Animal Welfare and Ethics.

Veterinary Care: Exotic Animal Hematology

The Detroit Zoological Society has hosted students from Macomb Community College’s veterinary technician program for the past seven years to teach them about exotic animal hematology. These second-year students spend an evening in the lab at the Detroit Zoo’s Ruth Roby Glancy Animal Health Complex, learning about the variance in blood cells in many exotic animal species and understanding why zoo medicine is a very specialized field.

Hematology is a medical term referring to all things related to blood – a major part of diagnosing illness and disease comes from the information we learn by examining a patient’s blood. The special thing about working in the veterinary hospital at the Detroit Zoo is that we are responsible for the healthcare of all 230 species of animals that reside here. Working with such a large variety of species can be fun but it can also be daunting when you realize just how much information we actually need to know.

Part of the laboratory testing performed on the samples that we collect involves smearing a small drop of blood onto a microscope slide, applying a special stain and examining the blood smear under a microscope. We then perform a count of 100 different white blood cells and analyze all of the cells for abnormalities. We also look for things like hemoparasites, which are parasites that can be found in the blood.

Mammal blood is different from bird, reptile, amphibian and fish blood in that mammal red blood cells do not contain a nucleus while the other classes of animals’ red blood cells do. Aside from that major difference, the types of white blood cells in mammals differ from non-mammals along with variations in cells from species to species. For example, penguin blood cells look different than vulture blood cells. In a human laboratory, this same testing is performed by an automated CBC (complete blood count) machine, which automatically counts the cells and reports the values. In a zoo setting, we do not have the same capabilities. Because of the nucleated red blood cells found in many of our patients, these cells cannot be counted by a lab machine and must be counted by hand. Being able to recognize normal and abnormal cells in so many species of animals comes with a lot of practice and many years of experience.

I have continued to practice and hone my hematology skills since becoming a veterinary technician for the Detroit Zoological Society more than 10 years ago. I look forward to continuing our relationship with Macomb Community College’s veterinary technician program and being able to share my specialized hematology knowledge with more local veterinary technician students in the future.

– Erica Campbell is a veterinary technician for the Detroit Zoological Society, operating out of the Ruth Roby Glancy Animal Health Complex at the Detroit Zoo.

Humane Education: Opening Your Heart to a “Fur-ever” Friend

It’s been one year since I adopted Clemmie, a now 8-year old yellow Labrador retriever mix. During that time, she’s really come into her own. She’s still an anxious girl, but she’s made tremendous progress.

As I reflect on this past year, it makes me smile to think about all that Clemmie has learned and overcome. When she first came home, she had protruding ribs and visible signs indicating that she’d been used to breed lots of puppies. She had no idea that she was supposed to go to the bathroom outside. She was terrified of Frankie, my cat – so much so that she couldn’t even look at him. She would sometimes cower when I put my hand out to pet her.

It’s taken a lot of patience and persistence and a consistently calm demeanor to help Clemmie break out of her shell. Sometimes people have the perception that as soon as you adopt a companion animal and bring them home, they will instantly adapt. But there’s an acclimation period for animals of all ages. It requires dedication – it can take months or even years – but it’s also a joyful process as you watch your beloved companion overcome obstacles and become a true part of the family.

Having empathy really does lead to patience during times of frustration; for example, during the first eight or so months, Clemmie was having daily accidents. When I would pause for a moment and recognize all that she had been through, my outlook always changed.

Clemmie very rarely has accidents these days. She’s learned how to shake with her paw. She stops mid-walk to look up at me because she wants me to pet her and give her a hug. She’s recently played with a toy in front of me. And the thing that touches my heart the most – she and Frankie have become the best of friends, often curling up with one another or watching the world pass by out the front window. I couldn’t be more grateful for my two rescued furry companions. They bring me immense joy and fill our house with love.

If you’re thinking about adopting a dog or a cat, local rescue organizations and shelters can support you in finding the perfect companion animal. Unfortunately, an estimated 10,000 dogs and cats are euthanized in shelters each day due to a lack of homes. That adds up to 3-4 million animals in the U. S. each year. So when you adopt an animal, not only are you bringing home a new member of your family, you’re also responsible for saving that individual’s life.

Join us on May 18 and 19 at Meet Your Best Friend at the Zoo – one of the nation’s largest off-site companion animal adoption events – where hundreds of dogs, cats, puppies and kittens are available for adoption to loving homes. And be sure to stop by the Zoo’s humane education table while you’re there and learn more about how we work to help people help animals.

Lisa Forzley is the curator of humane education for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Berman Academy for Humane Education.

Education: Program Benefits Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease

The Detroit Zoological Society (DZS) has partnered with the Alzheimer’s Association-Greater Michigan Chapter to bring its Community Connect program to the Detroit Zoo. This program provides a broad range of socialization and culturally significant events and outings for people living with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, as well as for their care partners. As part of this effort, we developed “Minds in the Wild”, a fun learning experience at the Detroit Zoo that includes a tour, conversations with animal care staff and hands-on activities that allow for individuals to practice gross motor movement while exploring the animal world.

The Alzheimer’s Association works on a local, national and global level to not only find a cure for and prevent this debilitating and fatal disease, but also to provide care and support for the more than 5 million people affected by it.

We have seen the impacts for the people who participate. One gentleman shared a story of how discouraged he felt when he was first diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, but he added that this program has given him a reason to leave the house. He now looks forward to attending each month, and enthusiastically participates in the activities as he builds relationships with DZS staff.

Just as each animal in the care of the Detroit Zoological Society receives individualized attention, our education programs focus on meeting the needs of all of our learners. Every student – from toddlers to seniors and all ability levels – can experience the impact of creating connections with wildlife and wild places.

Wildlife Conservation: Breeding Eastern Tiger Salamanders

Amphibian breeding season is here! That means it’s time to start helping amphibians get in the mood for love and romance.

The Institution of Museum and Library Sciences (IMLS) recently awarded a $500,000 National Leadership Grant for the purpose of improving reproduction within captive assurance colonies of imperiled salamanders. The Detroit Zoological Society is one of the primary partners on this grant. My doctoral research focused on salamanders, their reproductive physiology and techniques to help them breed, and that very research was the basis for the recent IMLS grant proposal.

Other partners on the grant include Mississippi State University and Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium. Now that the grant was awarded, techniques must be taught to the other partners so we can all work together in salamander conservation efforts. I recently visited Mississippi State University in order to train the other principal investigators and the graduate students involved on this salamander grant in principles of natural salamander reproduction and performing assisted reproduction techniques with salamanders.

The training session involved eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), which are regionally threatened and endangered in various areas of North America. Like many species of salamanders, the tiger salamander is very difficult to breed in human care. Similar to other species in the “mole salamander” family, tiger salamanders respond to changes in air pressure and temperature when seasonal rain storms occur. These storms are what cue breeding behavior and are very difficult to replicate in human care. Without the ability to provide the appropriate “mood”, tiger salamanders in human care will not often feel romantically inclined. Natural breeding is always the first goal when breeding animals for conservation, but sometimes this is extremely challenging. In these cases, we use alternative techniques while we perfect replicating the natural breeding environment.

In vitro fertilization is a technique used to assist salamanders and other amphibians in breeding. Most salamander species undergo internal fertilization, in which the female picks up a capsule of male sperm, called a spermatophore, which the male has deposited into the environment. The female holds the sperm in an internal pouch that she later empties over her eggs as the eggs are laid. In in vitro fertilization of salamanders, sperm is collected from males by giving them a massage. Eggs are then collected from the female into a small dish where sperm is placed on top of the eggs. Just add water, and presto, you have salamander babies. Of course, it is never just that easy, but the concept is straightforward.

I trained the other primary investigators and students in other techniques as well, including cryopreservation – or freezing and long-term storage – of salamander sperm and sperm quality assessment. The training was very successful, with nearly 100 tiger salamander babies produced. Now the trainees can go on to teach more amphibian conservationists, and we can save more species by assisting with breeding!

– Dr. Ruth Marcec is the director of the National Amphibian Conservation Center at the Detroit Zoo.

Animal Welfare: A Compassionate Approach to Toad Conservation

Staff members from the Detroit Zoological Society’s (DZS) National Amphibian Conservation Center and Center for Zoo and Aquarium Animal Welfare and Ethics are collaborating to find out what toads like. By doing so, we can ensure we are providing for their welfare while they’re in our care and also contributing to the conservation of this species in the wild.

Wyoming toads (Anaxyrus baxteri), also known as Baxter’s toads, are considered extinct in the wild, and their numbers must be bolstered each year by reintroductions of individuals born and reared in the care of humans. They can be found in two locations within the Laramie Basin in Wyoming, thanks to efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other dedicated organizations including the Detroit Zoological Society.

Wyoming toads were abundant until the 1970s when their numbers began to plummet due to the spraying of aerial pesticides, habitat alteration and the fungal infection caused by chytridiomycosis, which is decimating amphibian populations worldwide. By 1984, the species was listed as endangered and in 1993, that listing changed to extinct in the wild. That year, what were believed to be the last 10 remaining Wyoming toads were brought into a facility to safeguard them and begin a breeding program in the hopes of one day reestablishing the species in the wild.

The Association of Zoos & Aquariums started an official Species Survival Plan for the Wyoming toad in 1996, a program in which the DZS has been very active, including releasing thousands of toads hatched at the Detroit Zoo since 2001. Through the efforts of this collaborative breeding program, more than 1,500 Wyoming toads are currently believed to live in the wild.

Because breeding success continues to be a great concern for this species, the Wyoming Toad Species Survival Plan established strict guidelines for habitat setup at the participating institutions. The habitats are rather sterile to reduce the potential development of any disease processes and consist of a dry area typically made of PVC, a water feature, a basking lamp and a shelter. This type of setup was necessary to properly monitor conditions to promote higher survival rate and breeding success. Due to the success of the reintroduction program, new habitat parameters can be explored, providing the toads with a more stimulating environment.

It is important that we assess how this affects the toads and what preferences they might have. To that end, habitats are being created that provide the toads with a choice between the standard habitat and one that has more naturalistic elements, such as soft substrates, multiple shelters and water features of varying shapes and sizes. With the assistance of our current resident, Emilie Gupta, we will be studying the toads to determine if this choice is important to them. Providing animals with choices and agency – or control – over certain aspects of their lives has been proven to positively affect welfare in some animals. This research will augment what we know about amphibian well-being and will add a compassionate dimension to this conservation success story, in which ensuring the welfare of individuals is a critical part of protecting the species.

Dr. Stephanie Allard is the director of animal welfare for the Detroit Zoological Society and oversees the Center for Zoo and Aquarium Animal Welfare and Ethics.